Jessica's neuroanatomy tutorial

(compiled by Jessica Grahn)

You can also use an interactive brain atlas.


If only the brain really did come in colours...

Orientation descriptions


* Coronal - Sections looking head-on, parallel to the face
* Sagittal - Sections parallel to the side of the head
* Horizontal / transverse / axial - sections parallel to the floor


* Anterior / rostral- towards the front
* Posterior / caudal - towards the back
* Superior / dorsal - towards the top
* Inferior / ventral - towards the bottom
* Medial - towards the midline
* Lateral - towards the sides

The AC / PC line

The line joining the Anterior Commissure (AC) and Posterior Commissure (PC)


The Cerebellum

(Schmahmann, J.D., et al., Neuroimage, 1999, 10:233-260. )


The Basal Ganglia

Caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus (also called pallidum by AAL template).

BG.png BG_nooutline.png

The caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum (the most ventral outline)


The Thalamus


The Colliculi

Superior colliculus and inferior colliculus.
In the z direction, once you see the colliculi, you are not in the thalamus anymore
The upper left picture has crosshairs on the superior colliculus, the rest are centred on the inferior colliculus.


Brodmann Areas

In the cortex, Brodmann areas are often used in conjunction with anatomical lables to help specify an area.


1, 2, 3 = primary sensory cortex
4 = motor cortex
5, 7 = secondary sensory cortex
6 = supplementary motor area (medial) and premotor cortex (lateral)
8 = frontal eye fields
9/46 = dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
10 = frontopolar cortex
11, 12 = orbitofrontal areas
17 = primary visual cortex
18, 19, 20, 21, 37 = secondary visual cortex
24, 32 = anterior cingulate cortex
41 = primary auditory cortex
22, 42 = secondary auditory cortex
39 = angular gyrus, part of Wernicke's area
40 = supramarginal gyrus, part of Wernicke's area
44/45 = Broca's Area
47 Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
(13, 14, 15, 16, 27, 49, 50, 51 - monkey only)
Brodmann area 48 was described by Brodmann, but does not appear in his maps.

The medial temporal lobe

HC.png HCPHCFGamyg2.png

The lateral temporal lobe

LateralTemporal1.png LateralTemporal2.png

The supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas

SMA and pre-SMA, medial Brodmann area 6
The dividing line between the pre-SMA and the SMA is often considered to be the plane of y = 0.


The anterior cingulate

Generally taken to have cognitive (red) and affective (blue) divisions.
Brodmann areas 24 and 32.
An excellent review (from which this figure was taken) is available here

The frontal lobe

frontal_lobe.png frontal_lobe_Rwhite.png brainbrodmannareas_2.gif

The parietal lobe

parietal_rend_posterior.png parietal_rend_posterior45.png parietal_rend_posterior90.png

The Intraparietal sulcus divides superior and inferior lobules (yellow line on picture below)


The occipital lobe


Structural and functional anatomy related to the visual system: a nice picture (from American Scientist magazine).


A very comprehensive neuroanatomy site covering the entire brain: neuroimaging/vasculature/syndromes/pathology and quizzes.

This is an excellent site with MRIs, cadaver brains, and animations of brain structures (and you can quiz yourself!).

The fMRI for Newbies site is filled with excellent information, including a page on functional anatomy.

Clickable MRI and modelled brain sections yoked together.
Click on Brain or detailed Brain.
Once you've loaded the brain, read the buttons at the top and experiment a bit to see how they work: 'remove model' and 'cross-reference' are handy places to start.

Site with clickable list of neuroanatomical terms, with pictures.

If you're desperate to know about sulci, this manual with pictures may be helpful.

A less comprehensive (and more comprehensible) sulci description.